Sophos XG

Homelab: Network 2020

As a younger person in my career I got a few Cisco certs, the study material was available to me, and I thought it would be an interesting thing to learn. At this point, I have had a CCNP for almost 10 years and I still enjoy messing with networking even if it is not my day to day job. While I historically have used Cisco a lot, there are many other brands out there these days that have good gear, some even low power enough that I can run at home and not worry about the power bill. Below is my current home setup, it has changed a lot over time, and this is more of a snapshot than a proper design document. That is what homelabs are for right? Messing around with things.

Firewall

The firewall I am running is one I have mentioned on here before. The system itself is an OLD Dell Optiplex 990, released in early 2011 and soon to have its 10th birthday! Idling at ~30 watts, it works well for what I need it to with a gen 2 i7, and 8gb of ram. I added a 4 port Intel gigabit ethernet card to it, which allows for more ports and hardware offloading of a lot of IP tasks.

I looked around at different firewall OS options. Pfsense is the obvious one, but I found its interface lacking. (I use Palo Alto Networks firewalls at work and that interface/flow is more what I am used to) Opnsense is a bit better, but still leaves something to be desired on the UI side. Then I tried a Home License of Sophos XG. It is free as long as you stay at 4 cores or less, with 6 or less GB of ram used; you are given an “evaluation license” until 2099-12-31, if it runs out I will ask for an extension. For more than a year I have been enjoying it, the interface is slick, and you get the enterprise auto patching built in. In the time I have run it, I have had 1 zero-day attack on the product and it was immediately patched without me having to login. I use it as my home firewall between vlans, a DHCP server, and I also have IPSec and SSL VPNs for when I am away from home. The system does DNS for the house (on the less secure vlans, AD does those) and allows for block lists to be used. This is like a pihole but built into the product.

There are a few things it does a little odd, but I enjoy not having to go and write weird config files on the backend of some Linux/BSD to have my firewall work. I have it hooked into AD for auth, and that way I can login with a domain admin, and allow users who have domain accounts to VPN into home. It has been VERY stable, and usually only reboots when I tell it to do an update, or that one time the ~10 year old PC blew a power supply.

Cross Room Link

At the start of the year, I was running a Ubiquiti Wi-Fi mesh at home, it got decent speeds, and allowed me to not run wires over the apartment. The access points used were these models, link. They were only 2×2 802.11AC Wave 1; got decent speeds (around 400mbps), but being in a New York City apartment, I would get interference sometimes, even on 5ghz. The interferences would cause issues when playing games or transferring files. The bigger issue was my desk with a bunch of computers, and the firewall were on different sides of this link, meaning any data that was on a different vlan had to go over and back on this Wi-Fi link. On top of that, I will mention I basically HAVE to use 5ghz, I did a site survey with one of the APs and the LOWEST used 2.4ghz band near me was 79% utilized…

Anyway I started looking around for what I would replace it with, I always thought fiber could be a way to go since its small and if I could get white jackets on it, then it would blend in with the wall. I spend a few weeks emailing and calling different vendors trying to find someone who would do a single cable run of white jacketed fiber. Keep in mind this is early 2020 with Covid starting up. Lots of places could not do orders of 1, or their website would say they could and later they would say they couldn’t and refund me. Finally I found blackbox.com, I have no affiliation with them they just did the job quickly and I appreciate that. I got a 50 meter or so run, and was able to install that with the switches below.

Switches

Now that I had the fiber I needed some small switches I could run at home. After looking at what others have on reddit and www.servethehome.com I found the Ruckus ICX 7150-C12P. A 14 1gb/s ethernet, switch with 2 1/10gb SFP+ ports. The switch is compact, fan-less, and has 150 watts of POE! I can run access points, and cameras off of it without other power supplies. I have learned to look for before buying this sort of gear off eBay to try to get the newest firmware. With Cisco and HPe they love to put it behind a wall that requires an active support contract. Not only does Ruckus NOT do that, they have firmware available for their APs that allows it to run without a controller, more on that later.

I ended up buying 1 of the Ruckus switches “used” but it came sealed in box. Then getting another one broken, after seeing some people online mention they sometimes over heat if it was somewhere without proper ventilation and that can kill their power supply. The unit is fan-less, but the tradeoff there is nothing can sit on top of it, because it needs to vent. I was able to get one for around $40, then a new power supply for $30, all in I spend $70 for a layer 3 switch with 10gb ports! Now I have these 2 units on opposite sides of the room, in a switch stack. This way they act as one and I only need to manage “one switch”.

With the Ubiquiti gear no longer acting as a Wi-Fi link, which I have written about before, I only had one of the APs running. As mentioned before the access point was only 2×2 antennas and 802.11AC Wave 1. I was pondering getting a new Wi-Fi 6 access point, while looking around someone on reddit, again, suggested looking at Ruckus access points. Their antenna design is very good, and with their “Unleashed” firmware you get similar features to running a Ubiquiti controller. After looking at the prices I had to decide if I wanted to go Ubiquiti with Wi-Fi 6, and wait for their access points to come out, or get something equally priced but more enterprise level like a 802.11AC Wave 2 access point (like a Ruckus R510 or R610 off eBay).

I recently had a bad experience with some Ubiquiti firmware, then all of a sudden they killed Ubiquiti Video with very little warning, and some the more advanced functions I would want to do are either minimally or not documented with Ubiquiti. One could argue that I am used to enterprise gear, and Ubiquiti is more “pro-sumer” than enterprise; thus, I should not be upset at the lack of enterprise features. That made me decide to try something new. I ended up getting a Ruckus R610 off eBay and loading the “Unleashed” firmware on it. I can say the speeds and coverage is much better than the older access point. It is 3×3 802.11AC Wave 2, and with most of my devices still being 802.11AC I figured that was a good call.

One feature of the Unleashed firmware is it can manage all your Ruckus hardware. The web management portal has a place to attach your switches as well, and do some management of them there. I have been scared to do this, and coming from a traditional CLI switch management background have yet to do so.

Unleashed Home Screen

I was able to POE boot the AP just like I did with Ubiquiti, converting the firmware was easy, and there are many guides on Youtube for it. The UI does not have the same polish that Ubiquiti does, but the controller is in the AP itself which is very nice. There is a mobile app, but it is fairly simplistic. The web interface allows for auto updating, and can natively connect to Active Directory making it very easy to manage authentication.

There are 3 wireless networks in the home, 1 is the main one for guests, with their 6 year old unpatched android phones, that has a legacy name and meh password, that way I don’t have to reset some smart light switches Wi-Fi settings. This is where all the IoT junk lives. There is one with a better password that connects to the same vlan I am slowly moving things in the house over to, at least the key is more secure. Then there is the X wireless network, this one is not broadcast and has 802.1X on it. When a user authenticates with their domain creds, depending on the user and device I send them to a different vlan. This is mostly used for trusted devices like our laptops, and iPad when I want to do management things. This network for my domain account allows me on the management network.

10gb/s Upgrade!

The latest upgrade I have embarked on was 10gb/s. I moved my active VM storage off of the NAS to Storage Spaces Direct for perf. While the NAS has worked well for years, the 7 – 3 TB disks do not give fantastic IOPS when different VMs are doing a lot of transactions. After lots of thought and trials I went with Storage Spaces Direct and will write about it later. The main concern was that it allows all the hypervisors to have shared storage and keep it in sync, and to do that they need good interconnects. This setup is the definition of, lab-do-not-do-in-prod, with 3 nodes each with 3 SSDs over USB 3. I knew with USB 3 my theoretical bottle neck was 5gb/s, which is much better than the 1gb/s I had, that also had to be shared with all server and other traffic.

First I had to decide how I would layout the 10gb/s network, while the ICX 7150 has 2 – 10gb/s ports, 1 is in use to go between the switches. After looking around and comparing my needs/wants/power/loudness-the-significant-other-would-put-up-with I got a MikroTik CRS309-1G-8S+IN. I wasn’t super excited to use them, since their security history is not fantastic, but I didn’t want to pay a ton or have a loud switch. I run the switch with the layer 2 firmware, and then put its management interface on a cut off vlan, that way it is very limited on what it can do.

After that I got a HP 10gb/s server cards, and tried a Solarflare S7120. Each had their ups and downs, the HPs are long and would not fit into some of the slim desktops I had. But when the would work, like in the Dells, they would work right away without issues. The Solarflare are shorter cards which is nice, but most of them ship with a firmware that will not work on some motherboards or newer operating systems. For these you need to find a system they work in, boot to Windows (perhaps an older version) then flash them with a tool off their website. After that they work great. I upgraded the 3 main hypervisors, and the NAS. I have seen the hypervisors hit 6.1gb/s when syncing Storage Spaces. With memory caching I can get over the rated disk speed.

That is the general layout of the network at this point. I am using direct attached cables for most of the systems. I did order some “genuine” Cisco 10gb/s SFP+ off Amazon for ~$20, I didn’t believe they would be real, but I had someone I know who works at Cisco look them up and they are real. Old stock shipped to Microsoft in 2012 or so, but genuine parts. The Ruckus switches and these NICs do not care which brand the SFPs are, so I figured I would get one I knew. The newer Intel NICs will not work with non Intel SFPs so look out.

To summarize, the everything comes in from my ISP to the Sophos XG box, then that connects to a port on one of the Ruckus switches. Those two Ruckus switches have a fiber link between them. Then one of the SFP+ ports on the Ruckus switch goes to a SFP+ port in the MikroTik switch. All the hypervisors hang off that MikroTik switch with SFP+ DACs. Desktops, video game consoles, and APs all attach to 1gb/s ethernet ports on the Ruckus switches. I have tried my best to label all the ports as best I can to make managing everything easier. I’m sure this will evolve more with time, but for my apartment now 10gb/s networking with a Ruckus R610 AP has been working very well.

iOS/macOS On-Demand IPsec VPN with Sophos XG

Having a small home lab I wanted to be able to setup internal services, and then on the go be able to access them. While I could setup a L2TP or SSL VPN and connect whenever I wanted to use these services, I thought I would give On-Demand VPN via a iOS/macOS configuration a try. Little did I know the world of hurt I was entering. I will start with the settings you need to get it working, since a lot of people just want that. Then I will talk about the crazy and painful road I went down before finding 1, just 1, set of settings that seem to work. If you have any questions, thoughts, or success stories please comment below!

Fun fact: I will be calling the protocol IPsec here. That is what the original RFC called it, what the original working group was called, and the capitalization they used. Sophos agrees and uses that capitalization, while Cisco and depending on which web page you are on for Microsoft may call it IPSEC or IPSec or IPsec.

On-Demand VPN gives you the ability to set certain websites or IPs, and when your phone or laptop attempts to connect, the machine silently brings a IPsec tunnel online and uses it for that traffic. This allows you to run services at home, and to users (your mom or cat or whomever) it looks like just another website. Apple has 1 big requirement for them, you have to use certificate based auth. You can not use a pre-shared key/password. Also up front, to save you a few days of trying things. iOS and macOS will NOT check your certificate store for your VPN endpoint (Sophos XG) certificate, it HAS to ship with the firmware or you will get the fantastic and descriptive “Could not validate the server certificate.” Also believe it or not, that is one of the most descriptive errors you will get here. There are some posts on the Apple support forums from Apple engineers saying the root CA has to be in already on the device. If anyone gets it to work with your own let me know.

Sophos XG Setup

I am using Sophos XG v18 with a Home license, backed by AD running on a Dell Optiplex for this guide (dont worry it as a cool Intel Nic in it). To setup the IPsec server in Sophos XG first we need to make 2 certificates. Login to the admin portal, then on the bottom left select “Certificates”. You need 2 certificates; 1 is our “local certificate” (we will call it Cert-A) this is a cert that is used for the server (Sophos) end. As previously mentioned, this has to be a real signed cert. I ended up forwarding a subdomain on my site to the firewall, and then using Let’s Encrypt to create a cert for that URL. I used this site, https://hometechhacker.com/letsencrypt-certificate-dns-verification-noip/ to guide me in creating the cert on my laptop, then I uploaded that to the Sophos firewall. This will require you to have access to your domains DNS settings or be able to host a web file.

The second cert (Cert-B) is for the client, Sophos will call it “The Remote Cert”; this is to auth to the firewall, that can just be a locally generated cert. All devices will share this cert. The devices will use their username and password combination to identify the user. I used email as the cert ID, note this email does not have to exist, I just made one up on my domain so I will know what this cert is. Once created, go back to the main Certificates page and download the client/remote certificate, I suggest putting an encryption password on it since the Apple tools seem to freak out if that is missing. But ALSO the password for this cert will be in clear text in your config, so don’t make it a password you care about. These certs all need to be rotated at least once a year, with the newer requirements; Let’s Encrypt is every 90 days and I intend on automating that on one of the Linux machines I have.

Self-signed client end cert

Now that we have our 2 certificates, lets go over to “VPN” on the left hand navigation. I have tried many settings in the main “IPsec Connections,” and none of them have worked for me. I get fun and generic errors from the Mac of “received IKE message with invalid SPI (759004) from other side” or “PeerInvalidSyntax: Failed to process IKE SA Init packet (connect)”.

Click the “Sophos Connect Client” tab, the back end of this client is just a well setup IPsec connection. Fill in the form, from the external interface you want to use, to selecting “Digital certificate” as your auth method, followed by the “Local certificate” which is the Let’s Encrypt one (Cert-A). “Remote certificate” is the one we will load on your device (Cert-B).

Now you select which users you want to have access to use this. I have Active Directory backing my system, so I can select the AD users who have logged in before to the User Portal. This is a trick to Sophos XG you may need, if you use AD and a user doesn’t show up, that means they need to login to the User Portal first.

Select an IP range to give these clients, I suggest something outside any of your normal ranges, then you can set the firewall rules and know no other systems are getting caught in them. Once you are happy, or fill in other settings you want like DNS servers, click “Apply”. After a second it will activate, you can download the Windows and Mac client here, or follow along to make a profile.

Apple Configuration

To create a configuration file you need to download Apple Configurator 2, https://apps.apple.com/us/app/apple-configurator-2/id1037126344 onto a Mac. I know what you are thinking, 2.1 Stars, Apple must love enterprises. Download that from the store and open it up. If you do not have a Mac I attached a template that you can edit as a text document down below. This profile needs a Name, as well as an identifier. The identifier is used to track this config uniquely, if you update the profile, then your device will override old configs instead of merging. You will see on the left there are LOTS of options you can set, the only 2 week need are “Certificates” and “VPN”.

Starting with Certificates, click into that section, then hit the Plus in the top right. Upload the cert we exported from Sophos (Cert-B) earlier for the end device, and enter the password for it. Again note, this password is in plain text in the config file.

Now for the VPN Section. Click the Plus in the top right again to make a new profile, name the connection anything. Set the Connection Type to “IPsec”. IKEv2 is IPsec but a newer version, I will get into some of this later after our config is done and I can rant. Server is your Sophos XG URL. Account and password can be entered here to ease setup, or you can leave one or both blank to make the user enter it when they import the config. You can leave the user/password fields blank (it will give you a yellow triangle but that is fine) and then give it out widely and not have your creds in it… For “Machine Authentication” you want “Certificate”; you will see in selecting “Certificate” all of a sudden the On-Demand area appears. For “Identity Certificate” select the one we uploaded before. Finally we can enable “Enable VPN On Demand” and select the IPs or URLs you want to trigger the VPN.

Once that is done, save the profile and open it on a Mac or you can use this configuration tool to upload it to an iOS device. That should be it! Your devices should be able to start the connection if you ask it, and if you go to the website should auto vpn. Make sure you have firewall rules in Sophos XG for this new IP range, or that can block you from being able to access things.

A small note, from my tinkerings with the On Demand profile if you go to Safari on a iOS device, it will connect when you visit a website that is in the configuration. If you use a random app, such as an SSH application, I didn’t find it always bringing the tunnel up, and at times it had to manually be started. Something to lookout for, a nice part of the the IPsec tunnel is that it starts quickly.

Now that the config is done, I want to mention some of the other things I have learned in tinkering with this for several days. The only way I got it to work is using that Sophos Connect area, and the other big not documented thing is you have to use a publicly trusted cert for the Sophos end. I found 1 Apple engineer mention this on their forum, and a TON of people talking about how they couldn’t get the tunnel to work with their private CA. I have tried uploading a CA, and injecting it different places with different privileges for the Mac and never could get it to work. The Let’s Encrypt cert imminently worked.

For IPsec v1, aka IKEv1, Apple uses the BSD program racoon on the backend to manage the connection. Using the “Console” app you can find the logs of this. For IKEv2 it seems Apple wrote their own client around 2016-2018, there are a lot of reports online that it just doesnt work at all with cert based auth. All the guides about it working stop around 2016. You can find earlier ones, or people using pre-shared keys, but selecting pre-shared keys doesnt allow us to do a On Demand VPN. The bug has been reported for a while, https://github.com/lionheart/openradar-mirror/issues/6082. If you try to do this, you can expect A LOT of “An unexpected error has occurred” from the VPN client. Even looking at the Wireshark traffic didn’t lend any help on tuning Sophos to give the IKEv2 client something it would accept. If someone figures out how to get that to work in this setup please let me now.

Now that everything is setup you can host things yourself. I give the auto connecting VPN less rights than when I do a full tunnel on my laptop, but it allows for things like Jira to be hosted, then mobile clients to easily connect.

Template

For your cert to work in the template it needs to be converted. Sophos will give you a .p12 file for your cert, use the following command to get the version that needs to be in the .mobileconfig file. You’ll at minimum want to edit the cert area and put yours in there, set the password for the cert, and any URLs you need.

openssl enc -a -in user.p12 -out user.enc