Projects

Building a Tiny Classic Mac Part 3 – OS and Software

In building the project I wanted the computer to have the closest to the original feel as I could get. There were a few difficulties in the project, from the TFT screen, to the OS configuration. Yet in the end, I got a cute little replica running on top of a Raspberry Pi. I am not trying to break copyright, or profit from this. I simply do it as a fan of good hardware and past operating systems.

To start I want to mention that there are areas of this “guide” where I have been short, if you are unfamiliar with Linux, some of the parts in this config may give you problems. This project includes compiling code, adding scripts to boot, and configuring systems like VNC.

I loaded the standard Debian install onto a SD card to start (which at the time was Debian 6 or 7), then I started investigating the different original Motorola Mac emulators. The two main ones I found were Basilisk II and Mini vMac. Basilisk offers features such as Color, networking, and advanced features over Mini vMac. A very useful feature that Basilisk has is supporting a shared drive. You can tell the emulator that a folder on your Pi or any PC should show up as a hard drive in Mac OS 7. That way you can easily download games/software from archive.org or other locations, then load it onto the virtual system!

Mini vMac did offer greater compatibility for apps, while only being black and white, it seems to do a much deeper level of emulation; this makes it slower, but some apps that wont work on Basilisk will work on it. My solution in the end was to put both of the emulators on the box, pointing to the same virtual hard drive.

A script wraps the system, by default it auto boots into Basilisk, but if you “shutdown” the Mac in the emulator, you get a options screen that will allow you to switch modes the emulator is running in, the emulator itself, or some other settings. Some of the other settings including pairing Bluetooth, shutting down, or dropping to the console.

These files are available under https://github.com/daberkow/minimacparts. There is a SYSINIT script that starts the script, aka the wrapper, and gets the session started under the “pi” user, this goes in the /etc/init.d folder. Then there are folders for the different emulators in the /opt/mac folder.

Note: I used the current Raspberry Pi Debian build when I did this project, which at the time was using SYSINIT over the newer SystemD. If you want to use a newer build (which you probably should) you will have to translate my crummy SYSINIT script into a SystemD script. Feel free to pull request the repo! 🙂

One of the larger issues that had to be overcome was screen scaling. The screen I used is 480×320, but the original Macintosh resolution was 512 Ă— 342. This had some of the emulators either cut off, or scrolling around the screen when the mouse got to a corner, which was not great. I could run the emulators at a smaller resolution, but some software was designed with that screen in mind and applications were cut off!

My solution was to use VNC, the system starts the emulator in a VNC session running at the native resolution, then the Pi screen connects to that session and enables scaling mode, shrinking it to the proper size. This way VNC worries about all the scaling, at a minor speed loss. I looked at different X configs to try to do the scaling that way, but the way this screen works, it gets upset and has problems very easily. The screen does not have a scaler of any sort, so you HAVE to send that resolution of 480×320 to it. The VNC solution works well. The different emulators have VNC config files that are copied to the running config right before its run depending on the emulators properties.

At this point we should discuss dependencies; TightVNC server was used for VNC. A quick minor note about VNC, you need to config the VNC users password, and then setup the script to auto-login with that password for the above script to work. Bluez Bluetooth stack and utils were used to be able so use Bluetooth peripherals. Basilisk and Mini vMac were compiled from source on the Pi 2 so that I could squeeze the most performance out of the little PC. Also its hard to find the latest versions ARM compiled online.

Basilisk II:

Basilisk has a good make file that you can use on the Pi as long as you have standard development environment setup, https://github.com/cebix/macemu/tree/master/BasiliskII.

Mini vMac:

The authors website offers a nice little service to have the website compile to code for you, or you can compile it yourself. Depending on your screen and how you want the app to start (a lot of those settings are hard coded in at compile time) http://www.gryphel.com/c/var/index.html.

I made one virtual hard drive, that both emulators used. Luckily they use a compatible hard drive image format. I set the first image up on my desktop just because it was easier. Then copied it over once I got the image in a good state. For years Apple gave out for free on their website Mac OS 7.5.3, then after a website update it seem to break a lot of the links. A few still worked but most over the years have stopped working. A lot of different sites have mirrors of those disks available though, if you search “System_7.5.3_01of19.smi.bin”, that should bring you to one of the mirrors. The one other thing you need is a ROM for a original Macintosh. I have some classic Macs at home, and you can dump the ROM from those. Or there are sites out there that have them hosted, I would guess that would not be to hard to find.

I put the virtual hard drive, and the ROM in a folder called “Shared” in the /opt/mac directory. You may have to tweak some of the configs/scripts to get everything working your way.

Once you get it working, there are a ton of games and pieces of software on archive.org for the old Macintosh, just make sure you get the 680*0 versions not the PowerPC versions. There are also a ton of abandonware sites, since half the companies that made this software are out of business, I doubt they will mind you taking a look, though legally its a grey area.

Those are the basics for how I got the system setup. One item that gave me a bunch of problems was the TFT screen. At the time you needed to load separate kernel modules and configure boot parameters for it. I think newer kernel images have added this, so that should be a simpler task for everyone.

 

Building a Tiny Classic Mac Part 2 – Hardware and Wiring

The units themselves are laser cut acrylic. The front face that was put on the painted units was 3D printed. The designs for those pieces are on my GitHub page, https://github.com/daberkow/minimacparts . The original design was a tad bit smaller than the final unit. I ended up making it exactly about 1/3 scale, then realizing that there was not a screen on the market to do what I wanted to do. When I moved up to the 4″ screen, the resolution went up to a incredible 480×320. There were a bunch of issues around that resolution that I will get into in a later article.

For the Raspberry Pi I used a Raspberry Pi 2. The first version I made had a Pi 1 in it, and I ended up upgrading to the 2 just for the speed and added cores. With the system running a emulator, core 1 can get used up by that; having more available made sure things like SSH didnt lock up.

I designed two brackets, one set that holds the screen in place, and another that mounts the Pi to the inside of the case. The screen mounts are just two bars that are the exact with of the screen and help mount it inside, while leaving the port available for the IDE cable. The mount for the Raspberry Pi made it easier to take the Pi in and out of the case when building the unit. And a nice list so the Pi doesn’t get glued or screwed right into the side of the case.

IMG_2385

For the front USB port, I got a USB 3.0, 6 inch cable. The most important part of this cable is finding one with a 90 turn at the end that does not stick out a lot. The Raspberry Pi is mounted in the end to the side wall of the case, and there is not much clearance. A USB cable that comes out from the top of the Pi is better as well. I ordered the wrong one for this last build, and then had to bend it a bit so it wouldn’t push against the side of the case.

IMG_6358

A simple micro-usb extension cable was used for powering the Pi. The female jack goes to the back of the case, so that the unit can be powered. Again, the 90 degree male plug was important because that side sits right next to the screen. Audio was a random 90 degree 3.5mm extension cable off amazon. The first unit, the clear one, had a different make than ones i got later. Some of the later units had a splitter instead of a single extension. The original idea was to have a speaker inside for the start up sound. That quickly added to the complexity and was cut from the final project.

The networking port was important so that I could easily add new programs to it. The systems also had a tiny wifi receiver, but I figured hard wiring was also easy. That was a custom keystone jack to a RJ45 port.

I mentioned in Part 1 that the screen was connected to the Pi via a IDE extension cable. After looking around for other solutions that worked cleanly, this was the best one. The cable can handle the frequencies, and was easy to find. It also doesn’t do any flipping of pins or roll-over shenanigans.

To bring it all together, super glue was used, not the most glamorous, but strong and holds. I made a few little tools to help me try to put better right angles together when gluing the cases. Those didnt always work out great.

IMG_6349

To wrap up, I will go over my build order, just in case anyone decides to try to make one of their own. I would first get the front piece, and glue that to the side walls. Let that dry for a few hours at least, superglue likes to dry fairly fast, but I wanted it to be solid through and through. Then I would add the bottom front panel area, and the sliver that goes between the front bottom, and that bottom panel. After I put the bottom of the unit on, I would stop working on the main body. Now its time to get the screen, with it powered on and working with the Pi, line it up to where it looks good in the cut out.

After I have found the spot the screen should go, put the brackets on it, and glue it into place. This has to be a little carefully done, any spare glue that drips into the screen can make it look bad. Once the screen has dried, getting the mounting arms for the Pi bracket, and gluing them in place was done. There is not a real science to where it went, I would put the whole Pi sled in, then see where it seemed to work well with all the cables attached. Then sharpie those spots and glue the arms down, watching them long enough to make sure they didnt fall over. Once that was done, and I felt good about where the Pi was, I would glue two tiny blocks I 3D printed to hold the Pi sled in place.

Gluing the front USB isnt too bad, its putting it in position then gluing the edge of the extender into the place it should sit. The hardest part is not getting glue in the connector, and doing multiple layers so that it doesnt move with normal user use.

Getting the back to stay in place was my least favorite part. There are little L brackets I 3D printed that the back could screw into. They work well but lining them up and gluing them into place, and not the back itself was tiring. I would tighten the brackets a fair amount to the back plate, then get the plate into position and glue the bottom two brackets into place. Then I would do the top two. At this point gluing the different connectors into the back ports isn’t too bad. I also made brackets for them, the brackets are bigger than the whole so that it covers the whole port when the piece is in it. These brackets weren’t held with little arms like the Pi, just glued into place.

Finally the top was glued in, and then the last little top slant area. The screen I mentioned getting before may not be available from Amazon, but there are a ton of others that are all seem to be made by the same place, then had another brand stamped on them. For the last build I did, I grabbed another brand (link) and it worked with the same drivers out of the box.

Building a Tiny Classic Mac Part 1

I saw online someone who made a tiny Mac (The Verge) and thought it looked like a neat project to attempt. I started by selecting the original Macintosh as the template I wanted to emulate. Macintosh-HelloSeveral people had made 3D models of the original Macintosh over on thingiverse.com, I used a combination of those and other sources online including photos to make a cleaned up model for myself in Sketchup. After having that model I went about breaking down how I would make it.

I recently have been using laser cutters for fun at TechShop, so I made the body of the machine out of clear acrylic. Then 3D printed a face plate that was glued onto the acrylic case. After that, it was painted with several coats of spray paint. I left the back door off so that I could work on installing the electronics, and setting up the software. That will be another article later.

The first unit I made was for myself, then two more for friends; the original one never got painted, I thought the clear body was neat and showed off the internals. It also gave me a good model to hold when working with the opaque other units.

Clear Mini Mac

Mini Mac v1

Each unit had a little screen that connected to a Raspberry Pi via a ribbon cable. Then a USB port in the front where the old unit had a keyboard port. The back had a ethernet port for updating the system itself, audio out, and micro-USB port for power. One of the hardest parts of the project was finding a ribbon cable that could handle the frequencies and work between the screen and the Raspberry Pi. A lot of the GPIO ribbon cables online actually flip what wire is in the 1 position with its neighbor; my solution was a 6 inch IDE extension cable. The cable can handle high frequencies, as well as fit the pin out perfectly.

20150918_152507000_iOS

Example Painted Side

After testing several different color paints, I ended up using Rost-Oleum Ivory Bisque semi-gloss as the beige shade. All the sides were glued together except the back, The back was held on by tiny brackets that were 3D printed and then screwed into. This allows access to the inside without breaking glue somewhere. Originally I was going to attempt to put a little handle on it, but that increased the complexity; in the end the top is flat.

All the laser cutting and 3D files I used I tracked with Git over at https://github.com/daberkow/minimacparts . I will put a few photos of the clear unit below, and of the final unit. Then later post another article about the electronics, and software to run it. There are also photos of the many many attempts at different sized bodies and painting side panels. My original model was almost exactly 1/3rd scale. Then I had to make it a tiny bit bigger because of the screen I used.

Standard disclaimer that I do not own or hold any rights for the Macintosh name, or Apple logo. I do this as a fan for fun.

Parts:

  • Screen, JBtek® Latest Version 4 ” inch IPS Display (Super TFT) 480×320, (Amazon)
  • Screen Cable, IDE Extension Cable, (Amazon)
  • Audio Cable, 3.5mm right angle cable (Amazon)
  • USB Extension cable, with 90 degree plug so that it fits in the case (Amazon)
  • Micro USB extension for power, with 90 degree head (Amazon)
  • For ethernet I made my own cable, it had a RJ45 head and a RJ45 keystone for the back

 

Updated Windows Sudo

Recently I updated my Windows sudo program and added a command for Super Conduit, this is what I call some tweaks that you can make to a Windows Vista+ system. This allows someone to copy sudo.exe to a systems, system32 folder; then after running “sudo cmd” you can run “sudo /write” so add ls, ifconfig, and superc as a option in the command line.

Superc has options of enable, disable, and show. Making it easy to run. 🙂

Newest build is always here https://github.com/daberkow/win_sudo/raw/master/sudo/sudo/bin/Release/sudo.exe

VM Experimentation

I am the type of programmer/IT person who enjoys having all my experimentation of systems done inside a virtual machine. That way if I break something, I can easily role back the virtual machine or just delete it. As seen in my last post, I recently built a new NAS. The original plan was to turn my old server into a Proxmox or ESXi box, the downside to that plan I found out quickly; the old box used DDR2, and at this point to get DDR2 memory it is quite expensive. That, along with my worry of power usage on the old box, I decided to give another solution a try.

After researching around I found my local Fry’s Electronics had the Intel NUC in stock. This is a tiny tiny PC that can take up to 16GB of RAM, has an Intel Core i5, and only uses 17 Watts. The box also has Intel vPro; what is vPro you ask? vPro allows you to remotely manage the system, so I can remote into it without buying a fancy management card, I can also remote power the box on and off, or mount a virtual CD. not bad for a ~$300 box. The model I got, DC53427, is a last gen i5, so it was a little cheaper, at the cost of having only 1 USB 3.0 port. It came with a VESA mount, so the NUC could be attached to the back of a monitor, that was a nice feature. I got USB 3.0 enclosure for 2 older 500GB hard drives, and used those as my storage. I installed Proxmox  on the system since my work has been starting to use that software more and more, and this was a chance for me to learn it.

A quick note about Proxmox to those who have not used it, I had come from a VMWare background so my work was my first experience with Proxmox. It is a free system, the company offers paid subscriptions for patches and such, without that the web page bothers you one time when you login, and you just dismiss the message. The software is a wrapper around KVM and some other Linux virtualization technologies. It can handle Windows and Linux systems without a problem. The interface is completely web based, with a Java virtual console; if you don’t update to the latest patches the java console can break with Java 7 Update 51. The software works well enough. There are still some areas that is needs improvements; in VMWare if you want to make a separate virtual network you can use their interface, on Proxmox that’s when you go to the Linux console and start creating virtual bridges. But once I got everything working, it seemed to work well. I don’t know how long I will keep it without trying another system, but for now it is nice. Since the system relies on KVM, it can do feautres like Dynamic memory allocation, if a VM is only using 1 GB of ram but is allocated 6, it will only take 1GB at that time. Also KVM can do deduplication of memory, so if two VMs are running the same OS, it only stores those files in memory once, freeing up more memory space.

I ran into one problem during install of Proxmox, the NUC is so fast, that it would start to boot before the USB 3.0 hard drives had been mounted. After searching around everywhere I found a fix on http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/12922-Proxmox-Install-on-USB-Device; adding a delay in the GRUB boot loader allows enough time for the system to mount the LVM disks correctly and then start. At first I just went to the Grub boot menu, hit “e” then added “rootdelay=10”, to the “linux /vmlinuz-2.6.32-17-pve root=/dev/mapper/pve-root ro rootdelay=10 quiet” line. After the system loaded I went into /Boot and added the same entry to the real Grub menu. Now I had a Intel NUC with 1TB of storage and 16GB of RAM. I could have used the NAS with iSCSI, but that was a lot of config I didn’t want to do; along with, I was setting up some Databases on the system and didn’t want the overhead of using the NASs RAIDZ2 at this time.

I have been using it for a few weeks, and its a nice little box. It never makes a audible level of noise (although it does sit next to its louder brother the NAS). Down the road if I want more power I can always get another NUC and put Proxmox into a clustered mode. These boxes keep going down in price and up in power, so this can grow with my needs.

NAS Migrations 2013

For years I used a Windows Server 2008 for my home files, having TechNet I used Windows Server 2008 and then later 2008 R2. While this was nice, it was using software RAID and a random assortment of drives that were cloning (RAID 1 style) between themselves. I originally went with this for the ease that Windows brings to things, but in the end with it mainly being a file server it just sat there initialized.

Fast-forward to this November, with space running out, I decided it was time to get a new system and replace the aging AMD Windows Server.

I wanted a RAID 5 or 6, so that I was not losing as much space as the RAID 10s that I had been using. I also wanted the system to be less maintenance than a Windows Server that needs patched every month. Recently I had heard good things about FreeNAS (freenas.org), from reddit.com/r/homelab; after seeing all the features of ZFS, I decide on a RAID 6, with ZFS. This is also known as a RAIDZ-2.

At first I looked at HP Microservers, http://www8.hp.com/us/en/products/proliant-servers/product-detail.html?oid=5379860 – !tab=features, yet after looking at what you got for the price, decided I wanted to build the new system myself.

The first challenge was finding a small case, that could hold the amount of hard drives I wanted, at least 5, without having a large footprint. After some searching I came across the LIAN LI PC­Q25B, http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16811112339, while not a cheap case, it offered a 5 hard drive tray and at the same time was not that large. This suited my purposes nicely.

Next I had to find which CPU I wanted; since I was hoping to keep the cost of the system down I looked at the AMD processors available. I was disappointed to see how cheap Intel processors were beating or matching far more expensive AMD chips. AMD would throw items in to sweeten the deal such as a decent GPU on the chip. However this was a NAS, I did not need all that extra stuff that would just sit there using power.

My final selection was an Intel Pentium G3220, http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16819116950; this part offers decent performance, and is the latest Haswell chip. This would allow me to upgrade the system down the road if need be. The part is also the latest socket, meaning that it could handle the larger memory sizes available, while I could use the MicroATX board the case required.

I threw in 16GB of ram (if you haven’t looked ZFS eats memory, you need about 1GB of memory per TB just to idle), and 5 – 3TB hard drives. I got the hard drives from different batches, so if something similar to Seagate’s 7200.11 drive failure happened again (http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/1050374/seagate-barracuda-7200-drives-failing) I would be protected.

Now that you know the hardware I will talk a little about the experience I have had with FreeNAS. The system is easy to install and has a nice interface. Using ZFS and the terminology they use takes a little getting used to, but the wiki can clear up a lot about what the different options do. I started the box on 9.1.0 and have updated to the latest 9.2.1; you can do updates through the web interface, and in the short time they have fixed a lot of little bugs, cleaned up the interface, as well as added new features. A nice new feature is the ability to make “Jails” of any Linux variety. These are hypervisor level VMS that can run on the system at little cost. I tend not to use them because when I use a VM to develop I tend to need a decent amount of memory, and my FreeNAS with ZFS uses 12GB of the 16GB doing nothing. But a nice feature non-the-less. FreeNAS also has some plugins that are a few clicks away; I installed Plex so I could stream media easily over the home network. FreeNAS uses Jails to run its plugins, creating a separate VM for each, this allows for security between your hosts data, and your plugins.

In the end, I am very happy with the box and its performance; my roommate and myself have been able to sustain 100MB/s writes to the box.

A quick side note, Plex is also a fantastic piece of software. You load it on a PC or NAS, point it at your media and sit back. It scans through all your media and gets all the metadata automatically. Then you can stream with the web interface, or through a DLNA device in your network. There are also iPhone and Android apps that let you stream without setting up weird port forwarding: just a very slick and well working product.

Java Windows Shortcut Library (Parsing and Creating!)

Recently I have been working on a project that involves extracting a bunch of files from zips. The problem I faced was all the shortcuts within the zips were hard coded to locations, making it impossible for me to move the extracted zip data to wherever I may want. I wanted a native library that could read and modify Windows Shortcuts so I could drop my zip data anywhere; my project is in Java, and its instant cross compatibility was needed. I know all my clients have Java installed, so that made its dependency not a issue. After looking around on the internet and finding several options, including the popular https://github.com/jimmc/jshortcut. Now the downside the this popular jShortcut library is you need a DLL, why you need a DLL to write a binary file, I am not sure. More specifically, you need a DLL for your PCs instruction set, ick! After searching the far reaches of github, and getting to the end of my rope I found https://github.com/kactech/jshortcut, written 5 years ago, and not really popular on github I thought I would give it a try. IT’S AMAZING! With no dependencies, and just a single include, you can write, modify, and create new Windows Shortcuts! There is example code included, and it couldn’t be easier to use. I just wanted to make sure anyone who has had the same problem knows about this great library.

How To Remove Branding From a Dell OEM Server

NOTE: This is for Dell OEM systems only, run at your own risk.

Recently I have RMAed motherboards for non-branded Dell servers. The problem I ran into is I was getting branded system boards back when I had originally had non-branded. The non-branded BIOSes would just be blank with a progress bar instead of having the Dell logo. I ended up spending more time and energy talking to Dell again trying to get boards to my specifications. I was told by several Dell engineers that unfortunately there was no way to fix this other than the factory setting the board up.

Well they were wrong, and because I didn’t find this anywhere online I am going to detail the instructions. Note: this is ONLY for people who need to un-brand systems from Dell, I have done this with 12th Generation servers and nothing else.

  1. Remove the old motherboard, and install the new motherboard into the chassis
  2. Now the first thing Dell training says is to set the service tag on the system now, DO NOT DO THIS YET
    • If you set the service tag, the unbranding tool will not work. If you have already set the service tag, more than likely by booting to DOS and using ftp://ftp.dell.com/utility/asset_a209.com, then you can still fix this. Boot back to DOS and use the tool again, except with “asset_~1 /s /d”. This is an undocumented feature that will remove the service tag of the box.
  3. Start up any version of Windows that is at least Windows Vista loaded. I used Windows 8 because you can get a 90 day evaluation for free. And that is enough for me to do what work I need done on the box before handing it over.
  4. Go to Support.Dell.com, and look up the box by the service tag to get to the OEM support site. If you don’t have the service tag, look up the generic version and get the url, currently for a R720 it looks like this http://www.dell.com/support/troubleshooting/us/en/04/Product/poweredge-r620. Now if you replace “poweredge” with “oth” you get the oem version. So http://www.dell.com/support/troubleshooting/us/en/04/Product/oth-r620”.
  5. Go to Drivers and Downloads, and find the download for “Identity Module”, I had to switch the OS selector to “Windows Server 2008 x64” to find it. Then hit “Download File”
  6. Now it will offer ~3 different files, one will be similar to “R620_Identity-Module_Application_WCPFW_WN32_1.01_A00.EXE”, stating “Identity-Module_Application”, download this file.
  7. Run this in Windows, it will ask if you are sure and just say yes. It can take up to 5 minutes, MAKE SURE NOTHING INTURUPTS THE SERVER IN THIS TIME.
  8. Reboot the server, and it will come up with the branding again, then it will give a special message once it gets past post similar to “modifying branding”
  9. The system will reboot again, and the branding is gone
  10. Now go into the DOS bootable drive, USB works well, and set the service tag for the system.

Now your OEM box that was impossible to unbrand has been unbranded.

WQL, SQL Queries for Windows Backend (Part 1)

If you have been writing web apps for a while, or other apps you more than likely have used SQL. SQL allows you to query a database and interact with your applications data. Instead of trying to find a users profile, what if we wanted to find out what a user was printing on their local machine? If there was an easy interface for that, it could make programming for a platform like Windows a lot easier. Well Microsoft years ago added this ability to Windows; the technology is called WQL. This was added with the other components of WMI (Windows Management Instrumentation) at Windows ME. For Windows 9x and NT you can download the WMI core. This article will be a brief over view of what it can do and how you can play around with it.

First like when we looked at LDAP, we want a tool that will let us quickly play around with what is available, and then code that into our application. The tool I use is WMI Explorer, http://www.ks-soft.net/hostmon.eng/wmi/, it provides a easy interface to look at all the data available. With the WMI core it works with everything back to Windows 95! You can download and run the program for free, no installation required. Once open, there is a upper portion of the window that lists all the spaces you can access, these would be the ‘tables’ in SQL. Depending on your version of Windows, there will be separate options available. I have used this interface before for network cards (6to4 Cleaner) and printers.

WMI Explorer

WMI Explorer

For this example I will go over to the Win32 framework and access the Win32_Printer ‘table’. I get a list of printers the machine has installed, as well as attributes to each of these printers. Any administrator, or any program attempting to manager printers (I say attempting because printers can he a horrible experience) information – like what port the printer is using – is here, in addition what type of connection this machine has to the printer. At the bottom of the Window there is a Query that is building as you select different fields. This query can be moved into a application later to get the same data in code. WMI Explorer also allows for a user to write Queries directly without this interface; that is the second tab at the top of the window.

One downside I have found in using WMI is the setup process time, in C#/.NET using WMI is easy, but it takes time to start accepting queries. About a year or two ago I was working on querying network card information on Windows Vista. The first call could take a few seconds to respond, after that first call it would speed up, this is just something that has to be accounted for in the applications design. I found running WQL queries in a separate process, and starting them as soon as possible would allow the process to finish before the user needed the data.

I just wanted to get everyone started looking at what is available, in a later article I will go into more depth about programming with this and how you can interact with this data in a C#/.NET program.

RPI phpCAS Authentication Tutorial

After much tinkering with RPI’s CAS (Central Authentication System) in PHP, I thought I would put together a guide to make it easy for anyone to put together a site that uses it. This would work for anyone at another location with a CAS server, but this example is for RPI.

  1. Get the CAS Library
  2. Download the tar file under “Current Version”
  3. Extract the contents, using a program such as 7-Zip, and put it in the root of whatever web folder you want
  4. Download the latest CA bundle for SSL
  5. Create a index.php, login.php, logout.php
  6. The index has to load the library, check if the user is logged in, then print out text.
    • <?PHP

      include_once(“./CAS-1.3.2/CAS.php”);
      phpCAS::client(CAS_VERSION_2_0,’cas-auth.rpi.edu’,443,’/cas/’);
      // SSL!
      phpCAS::setCasServerCACert(“./CACert.pem”);//this is relative to the cas client.php file

      if (phpCAS::isAuthenticated())
      {
      echo “User:” . phpCAS::getUser();
      echo “<a href=’./logout.php’>Logout</a>”;
      }else{
      echo “<a href=’./login.php’>Login</a>”;
      }

      ?>

       

    • First we load the library for CAS from the subfolder
    • Then we select which will be our central server
    • We have to select our ca bundle, setCasServerCert does this
    • Now we have fully loaded and configured the library
    • Finally, I can ask CAS if a user has logged in, if so writeout some options, if not others
  7. This is the login page
    • <?PHP

      include_once(“./CAS-1.3.2/CAS.php”);
      phpCAS::client(CAS_VERSION_2_0,’cas-auth.rpi.edu’,443,’/cas/’);
      // SSL!
      phpCAS::setCasServerCACert(“./CACert.pem”);//this is relative to the cas client.php file

      if (!phpCAS::isAuthenticated())
      {
      phpCAS::forceAuthentication();
      }else{
      header(‘location: ./index.php’);
      }

      ?>

       

    • Similar setup of authentication as before
    • Now we check if the user is NOT authenticated, if the user is not authenticated we force login
    • If the user already is logged in, then we redirect to the index
  8. The logout page:
    • <?PHP

      include_once(“./CAS-1.3.2/CAS.php”);
      phpCAS::client(CAS_VERSION_2_0,’cas-auth.rpi.edu’,443,’/cas/’);
      // SSL!
      phpCAS::setCasServerCACert(“./CACert.pem”);//this is relative to the cas client.php file

      if (phpCAS::isAuthenticated())
      {
      phpCAS::logout();
      }else{
      header(‘location: ./index.php’);
      }

      ?>

       

    • Same configuration (this can be done by including a core file that everything else calls, but for this example I wanted to keep it simple)
    • If they are not logged in, then we push the user back to login

That is the basic configuration, the example is available for download below. If there are any questions feel free to post a comment.

Download: https://github.com/daberkow/daberkow.github.io/blob/master/CASExample.zip

Extra Notes:

  • If you want to save server space, the docs folder under the CAS folder can be removed
  • I have ran into problems with CAS on a Windows Apache server, and CAS on a Linux Apache server reference the CACert.pem file differently